The specialist knowledge that underpins our wide-ranging services to the energy industry is respected internationally. Here our experts share their detailed technical insights into key issues which face the industry today.

We regularly update our papers and other content and much of it is available freely below. From time to time, some articles may require you to sign up to download them.

Flexible operation of power plants

Economic Flexible Operation

Economic Flexible Operation

Authors: Doug Waters & Claire Burgess
We explain how our Economic Flexible Operation solution helps operators take advantage of opportunities in a volatile energy market, for example by ensuring plants are faster to grid, faster to full load, cheaper to run, faster to shut down and stay warmer longer for the next start.

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15 years of experience with biomass fuels

15 years of experience with biomass fuels

Author: Will Quick
Our 15 years’ experience of generation from biomass and waste wood underpins valuable insights into key issues including fuel analysis, sampling and quality, and understanding the characterization of feedstocks. Plant issues include slagging, fouling, corrosion, biomass ash and the impact of fuel quality on performance.

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Operational flexibility

Opitimizing the safety case

Opitimizing the safety case

Author: Colin Wignall
New operating regimes caused can potentially shorten component lifetime significantly through fatigue damage. We highlight operational strategies to mitigate identified hazards and risks from transient operation and temperature changes.

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Modeling coal quality impacts on power generation costs

Modeling coal quality impacts on power generation costs

Author: Dan Eyre
In assessing the true value of coal to power plant operators our Fuel Evaluation Tool gives an accurate calculation of financial and operational impacts of coal quality. Such Value-in-Use calculations can help deliver benefits including reduced cost, improved performance and improved reliability.

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CCGT plant preservation

CCGT plant preservation

Author: Paul McCann
Flexible operational regimes present risks to CCGT plant components, in particular corrosion and pitting to gas turbines, HRSGs, steam turbines, generators and cooling water systems. We look at some of the issues and at how our preservation solutions can protect plant availability.

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Application of a film forming amine in a CCGT power plant

Application of a film forming amine in a CCGT power plant

Authors: Wolfgang Hater, Bill Smith, Paul McCann & André de Bache
With changing market conditions many plants have varying periods of non-operation. Unprotected shutdown represents a serious corrosion risk and established conservation methods are not always applicable. We have assessed film forming amines, which offer excellent potential for flexible conservation.

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Furnace tube life extension in biomass-fired boilers

Furnace tube life extension in biomass-fired boilers

Authors: Colin Davis, Iain Hall & Daniel Spalenka
Biomass-fired boilers can suffer unacceptably high fireside corrosion of the furnace wall tubes. Corrosion-resistant coatings can provide protection, but faced with cost and downtime, operators require some certainty on their benefits. We look at the potential for corrosion, solutions available and the results of tests on coatings.

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Regulatory compliance

Industrial Emissions Directive – implementation in the UK

Industrial Emissions Directive – implementation in the UK

Authors: Roger Brandwood & David Graham
What the EU’s new emissions Directive will mean for the UK energy industry, including timelines for its implementation, the basis for compliance and how it relates to other market factors such as security of supply and flexibility.

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EU Medium Combustion Plant Directive – monitoring and compliance requirements

EU Medium Combustion Plant Directive – monitoring and compliance requirements

Authors: David Graham & Steve Griffiths
An overview of MCPD emission limits for NOx, SO2 and dust, as well as monitoring requirements, which will apply to conventional power plants, gas turbines and engines. The Directive will apply to new plants from December 2018, and existing plants from January 2025 (> 5 MWth) or January 2030 (1 to 5 MWth).

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Medium Combustion Plant Directive – impact on the UK energy industry

Medium Combustion Plant Directive – impact on the UK energy industry

Authors: David Graham & Steve Griffiths
With this EU Directive to introduce new emissions limits from December 2018, we look in depth at issues it raises, including the aggregation of plants, permitting and registration requirements, emission limit values, monitoring requirements, and specific derogations and additions in England and Wales.

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Compliance with new flue gas flow rate standards at power plants

Compliance with new flue gas flow rate standards at power plants

Authors: David Graham, Jonathan Spence, F Blank, P Wolbers, N Faniel & J Annendijck
To support plant operators in monitoring, modeling and reporting emissions, important guidance is now available from the VGB technical association regarding quality assurance of stack gas flow rate calculations and compliance relevant standards.

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Introduction to Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction

Introduction to Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction

Author: Roger Brandwood
Introducing Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction as a NOx control technology. We discuss the regulatory drivers for its installation in new plant fired by biomass or waste, or as a retrofit to existing units. Also, what demonstrations of suitable SNCR performance and design could be required by Regulators.

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Emissions Regulation within the European Union

Emissions Regulation within the European Union

Author: David Graham & Frans Blank
Assessing the implications for medium and large combustion plants of EU regulations on emissions, including the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED), the LCP BREF and the MCPD. We look at basic concepts, emission limit values, monitoring requirements, permitting and derogations.

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EN ISO 16911 Volumetric flow measurements using tracer dilution to verify stack flow calculations

EN ISO 16911 Volumetric flow measurements using tracer dilution to verify stack flow calculations

Author: Jonathan Spence & David Graham
We have successfully developed the use of inert tracer gas to verify stack flow calculations as required in emission monitoring of power plants. We outline the advantages of the technique and give examples of how we have applied it in CCGT, OCGT and peat-fired plants.

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Market

A combined modeling framework for energy, reserve and system balancing

A combined modeling framework for energy, reserve and system balancing

Authors: Colin Silvester & Christopher Bates
The growth of renewables is changing the role of conventional generators in the market. Our integrated model will help energy strategy experts, market analysts, asset operators and traders understand the mix of capacity required to deliver a cost-effective, secure electricity system in the future.

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Generator stability study for high rate of change of frequency (RoCoF) events in a low inertia grid

Generator stability study for high rate of change of frequency (RoCoF) events in a low inertia grid

Author: Martin Aten
Increasing penetration of inverter-connected energy sources, such as wind and solar, can lead to frequency stability problems in smaller power systems. Our specialist capability to produce the capacity studies required by grid operators will interest plant operators facing similar problems.

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Charging reform for community energy projects

Charging reform for community energy projects

Author: Ben Lister
Community-owned renewable energy projects, which Uniper can design and engineer, provide benefits to the environment, the community and the local economy, However regulatory, tax and charging obligations may need to be reformed for such projects to become a sustainable business.

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Forecasting the future of coal-fired plants to prepare successfully for change

Forecasting the future of coal-fired plants to prepare successfully for change

Author: Roger Brandwood
Coal plants, having invested heavily to provide clean reliable energy, still have a future in providing secure generation to support renewables. However they face ever decreasing load factors and ever more challenging emissions requirements. We look at the prospects, including the impact of renewables and capacity markets.

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Case studies

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Energy Services Case Studies